- The presence of multiple seizure types before age 11 years, with at least one seizure type resulting in falls (drop attacks)
- Drop attacks (atonic seizures)
- Tonic seizures
- Atypical absence seizures
- Myoclonic seizures
- Generalized tonic-clonic seizures
- Partial seizures
- Atonic (drop) seizures seem to account for many of the injuries associated with LGS and many patients with intractable seizures must wear helmets for head protection
- Children often have increased seizures during transitions to and from sleep
- Slow spike-wave complexes are seen on EEG (<2.5 Hz)
- 40% have a history of infantile spasms
- Although not a diagnostic criterion, 91% of children with LGS have/will develop intellectual disability
- One half to two-thirds have focal neurologic abnormalities, most commonly motor signs such as spastic diplegia, and hemiparesis
- Tonic-clonic convulsions become more frequent in older children and adolescents
- There are no pathognomonic findings for LGS and a presumptive cause cannot be determined in 30-35% of affected children.
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|Author:||Lynne M Kerr, MD, PhD - 6/2013|
|Content Last Updated:||4/2013|
Oguni H, Hayashi K, Osawa M.
Long-term prognosis of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
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Prevalence and descriptive epidemiology of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome among Atlanta children.
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Treatment of pediatric epilepsy: expert opinion, 2005.
J Child Neurol. 2005;20 Suppl 1:S1-56; quiz S59-60. PubMed abstract