Orthopedic manifestations are one of the greatest cause of morbidity and discomfort to individuals with MPS I. They include:
- Progressive arthropathy leading to severe joint deformity (occurs in all patients)
- Early bone involvement, with cessation of linear growth by three years in children with severe MPS I
- Carpal tunnel syndrome is common, but early symptoms (pain, tingling and numbness) often go unreported. More commonly, parents notice increased difficulty with fine motor skills (a late symptom).
Individuals with attenuated MPS I may have severe bone involvement despite absence of cognitive impairment. Joint stiffness and contractures may present initially in the fingers, resulting in the characteristic "clawhand." Progressive skeletal dysplasia, or dysotosis multiplex, is seen in all individuals with severe MPS I. Dysostosis multiplex congenita is a radiologic finding with a number of related features, including:
- Spatulate ribs (oar-like)
- Wide diaphyses and narrow epiphyses
- Wide metacarpals, phalanges, metatarsals (bullet-like)
- Hypoplastic acetabulae
- Kyphoscoliosis, or "gibbus deformity"
- Anterior beaking of vertebrae
- Ossification defects of the lower vertebral bodies
Complications may include:
- Spinal nerve entrapment
- Acute spinal injury
- Atlanto-occipital instability
- Knees that are prone to valgus and varus deformities
- Pelvic abnormalities
- Carpal tunnel syndrome
- Progressive and debilitating hip deformity
- Resultant joint pain
While orthopedic surgery may greatly enhance the quality of life, there are significant risks for MPS I patients who undergo general anesthesia. Procedures that require general anesthesia should be conducted in an experienced center that is aware of the risks in this population:
- Dysostosis multiplex can lead to instability of the spine, including the atlantoaxial joint. Careful positioning and avoidance of hyperextension of the neck are necessary.
- Maintaining an adequate airway for induction of anesthesia can be difficult.
- Smaller than anticipated endotracheal tubes are often required because the trachea may be narrowed and the vocal cords thickened.
Spinal cord compression or instability of the neck may result in myelopathy (and rarely quadriparesis). Patients should be instructed to avoid "high risk" activities, such as contact sports, and parents should be cautioned about manipulation of the cervical spine.
Thoracolumbar kyphosis (gibbus deformity), due to poor bone growth in the anterior vertebrae, is the single most common orthopedic abnormality, occurring in about 90% of patients with severe MPS I. Prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplant, surgery for gibbus deformities was not performed on patients with MPS I due to their limited life expectancy. Following hematopoietic stem cell transplant, kyphosis will progress in about a third of patients and surgery will be required before age 9; in another third, it will not progress and surgery may be required later; and kyphosis will actually improve in the remaining patients.
Myelopathy and respiratory problems can occur later in life if kyphosis is left untreated. Bracing may slow the progression of kyphosis and scoliosis, delaying but not preventing surgery. However, bracing is often not tolerated by young children and is generally not recommended. A kyphosis of more than 70 degrees or a scoliosis greater than 40 degrees indicates the need for surgery and may occur in children as young as two years of age, with the average age being eight.
The presence of myelopathy is also an indication for surgery.
- Surgery for kyphosis almost always requires incisions from the front and the back.
- Metal hardware is typically stainless steel or titanium and is generally not removed unless there are complications.
- Most children will require some combination of a cast or brace for between 3 months and a year.
- An unsuccessful fusion can be painful and require repeat surgery.
Scoliosis may accompany kyphosis. When left untreated, scoliosis can lead to difficulty expanding the chest wall. Delaying spinal surgery may allow for maximal growth of the spine and further development of already thin and brittle bone.
Hip dysplasia, to some degree, is found in nearly all children with severe MPS I. It is not responsive to stem cell transplant or enzyme replacement therapy and the majority of children eventually require corrective surgery. Without hip surgery, there is progressive pain and stiffness and eventually frank dislocation of the hips with a dramatic reduction in walking ability. Surgery is more easily performed at a younger age, around 5-7 years for an optimal outcome. It involves repositioning the bones and tightening the soft tissues around the hip.
Genu valgum (knock-knees) severe enough to require surgery occurs in about 50% of children with MPS I post-transplant. The indication for surgery is a knee deformity greater than 15 degrees. Children with MPS I also suffer from stiff knees which prevent full extension and result in a crouched gait. Physical therapy can optimize knee motion and enhance walking. Knee staples are placed in the bone on the inner side of the knee, preventing bone growth on the inner side to allow the outer side to catch up. Occasionally the staples dislodge and may need to be removed and replaced. In small children, staples will not work and osteotomies in large bones around the knees may be required.
Carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger digits, and contractures of the fingers are common. Since there is a high incidence of undetected carpal tunnel syndrome, an annual electromyogram and nerve conduction test are recommended. Early and regular evaluation by an occupational therapist is recommended. Surgery consists of releasing the constricting tissue over the nerve and removing the deposits on the surrounding tendons. Trigger digits are treated by opening one or two of the many pulleys in each finger and cleaning the tendons of MPS deposits. These surgeries are relatively minor but may be beneficial.
|Author:||Pilar L. Magoulas, MS, CGC - 2/2009|
|Content Last Updated:||11/2011|